Saturday, May 7, 2011

Major Diseases of Wheat Crop

As i mentioned the importance of wheat crop but it is also true that wheat is infected by many pathogens which include fungi, bacteria and viruses. these pathogens cause economic losses of about millions of dollaras if they are not going to controll at right time.
Most common disease of wheat all over the world is rust of wheat which is cause by a fungal pathogen Puccinia graminis and cause rust colored patches on stem and leaves of the plants. Other than stem rust, loose smut of wheat is also very common. This disease is also caused by a fungal pathogen Ustilago tritici. In this disease , the heads become black due to the presence of spores of fungi. Entire seeds are filled with loose, powdery black colored spores. Other fungal diseases are Common Bunt (Tilletia caries, T. foetida) which is also known as Stinking Smut, Septoria Glume Blotch and Scab also known as Head blight(Fusarium graminearum).
Viral diseases include Barley Yellow Dwarf, Soilborne Wheat Mosaic and Wheat Yellow Mosaic (Wheat spindle streak mosaic).
In Pakistan, many kind of smut and rusts had been reported from different regions of Pakistan by the Govetment of Pakistan. These include:
1. Black Stem Rust of Wheat (Puccinia graminis tritici)
Orange or Leaf Rust of Wheat (Puccinia recondite)
Yellow or stripe rust of wheat(Puccinia striiformis)
Loose smut of wheat(Ustilago tritici)
Flag smut or Leaf smut of wheat(Urocystic tritici)
Bunt of wheat(Tilletta foetida or T. caries or T. tritici)
7. Karnal Bunk(Tilletia indica)
8. Ear Cockle or Tundo of Wheat(Anguillulina tritici -a nematode.)
9. Foot rot, Leaf spot & Black Complex( Helminthosporium sativum)
Septoria leaf Spots(Septoria tritici)

No comments:

Post a Comment